Department of Industrial Engineering, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Industrial Engineering, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
Cooperative and gradual covering are two new methods for developing covering location models. In this paper, a cooperative maximal covering location–allocation model is developed (CMCLAP). In addition, both cooperative and gradual covering concepts are applied to the maximal covering location simultaneously (CGMCLP). Then, we develop an integrated form of a cooperative gradual maximal covering location problem, which is called a general CGMCLP. By setting the model parameters, the proposed general model can easily be transformed into other existing models, facilitating general comparisons. The proposed models are developed without allocation for physical signals and with allocation for non-physical signals in discrete location space. Comparison of the previously introduced gradual maximal covering location problem (GMCLP) and cooperative maximal covering location problem (CMCLP) models with our proposed CGMCLP model in similar data sets shows that the proposed model can cover more demands and acts more efficiently. Sensitivity analyses are performed to show the effect of related parameters and the model’s validity. Simulated annealing (SA) and a tabu search (TS) are proposed as solution algorithms for the developed models for large-sized instances. The results show that the proposed algorithms are efficient solution approaches, considering solution quality and running time.